Sudan is located in north east Africa with the River Nile as the most dominant feature of its geography, as the Nile basin constitutes 67.4 % of the country’s total area. Due to its unique geographical location, Sudan has always been a trading and cultural bridge between northern and southern Africa as well as between the Arabian Peninsula and Africa, particularly west and east Africa.
The current people of Sudan descend from a mixture of many ethnicities and groups; most notable are (Arabs/African Hamites), and 96.7% of the population is Muslim.
Sudan gained independence from the Anglo-Egyptian Condominium on January 1st 1956. In 1955, a year before independence, a war broke out between the central government and different groups from southern Sudan, which continued to flare up and abate except for the period between 1972 and 1983. The south, which was subjected to geographic and cultural isolation since the beginning of 1922, in addition to other factors of nature, assumed a relatively special status on the Sudanese state’s map. This led to a development of a sense of not-belonging to the mother-land among a wide sector of the southern Sudanese intelligentsia, and the rebellion against the central government. This war affected the state’s social, economic and political stability and exhausted its human and material resources for more than half a century.
A series of talks were held between the government and rebel movement in a number of African capitals since November 1989. In 2002, difficult negotiations started aiming at ending the war and reaching a comprehensive and just peace between the central government and southern rebels. The negotiations culminated in the signing of Sudan’s Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) in 2005 which put an end to the war and granted southerners the right to self–determination at the end of an interim period as stipulated in the agreement. Accordingly, a free referendum was conducted on January 9th 2011 in which citizens of the south chose to break away from the rest of the country and create an independent country. On July 9th, 2011, Sudan will witness the beginning of the second republic in its history.
North Africa, bordering the Red Sea between Egypt and Eritrea.
Longitude : 21˚49̒ E - 38˚34̒ E
Latitude : 23˚8̒ N - 8˚45̒ N
Area: 1, 882, 000 sq km
- Country comparison to the world : 16
- 3rd in Africa and 3rd in the Arab World
- Land area: 1,752,187 sq km
- Water area: 129,813 sq km
Coastline: 853 km
- Total : 6,780 km
- Egypt : 1,273 km
- Eritrea: 636 km
- Ethiopia : 727 km
- South Sudan : 1,973 km
- Central African Republic : 448 km
- Chad: 1,340 km
- Libya: 383 km
Population: 33,419,625 Country’s population in comparison to the world: 35th, 3rd in the Arab World and 9th in Africa- Population Increase: (between the census of 1993 – 2008): 52%
- 0 – 14 years: 43.2%
- 15 – 65 years: 53.4%
- 65 years and over: 3.4%
Median Age: 59 years
- Men: 58 years
- Women: 61 years
Population Growth Rate: 2.8% per year
Population Density in km2:
- (2-3) in desert and semi-desert areas
- (218- 230) in (work areas / rich savanna)
Median Family Size: 5 - 6 people
Death Rate (per 1000 people): 16.7
Migration Rate: 0.29 migrant (s)/1,000 populations
- Rate of urbanization: 32.9%
- Population in urban areas: 49% of total population
- Improved sanitation services in urban area: 55%